Between 1980 and 2010, over 7,700 cases have been referred. Of those, 4,300 required an operation, usually returning to full sporting activities within 4-6 weeks.
Research has shown surgery to be successful in 97% of professional soccer players. The condition is most frequent in association footballers (57% of referrals).
85 English football league clubs have referred players, whilst many came from Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Europe and other continents. Other sports include Rugby Union and League (10%), racquet games (4%), athletics (4%), cricket (2%), hockey (2%), and those undertaking general fitness training and other sports (21%).
Over the past 30 years, the operation has been successfully performed on over 390 international sportsmen and women.
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